FDCONTROL(8) MidnightBSD System Manager’s Manual FDCONTROL(8)

NAME

fdcontrol — display and modify floppy disk parameters

SYNOPSIS

fdcontrol [−F] [−d dbg] [−f fmt] [−s fmtstr] [−v] device

DESCRIPTION

The fdcontrol utility allows the modification of the run-time behavior of the fdc(4) driver for the device specified by device.

Commands are implemented to query the current device density settings as well as the underlying device hardware as registered with the driver, to manipulate debugging levels, and to adjust the device density settings. All the operations that manipulate the kernel settings are restricted to the superuser (by the device driver), while all inquiry requests only require read access to device.

The device argument should always be given as a full path name, e.g. /dev/fd0.

Inquiry Commands
Running the fdcontrol utility without any of the optional flags will report the drive type that is registered with the device driver. In the shortest form, a single string describing the drive type will be returned. Possible values are: ‘‘360K’’, ‘‘1.2M’’, ‘‘720K’’, ‘‘1.44M’’, ‘‘2.88M’’, or ‘‘unknown’’. This information is primarily intended to be easily parsable by scripts.

In order to add some descriptive text that makes the output better human readable, the flag −v can be added.

Specifying flag −F will report the device’s density settings in a form that is suitable as input to the −s fmtstr option (see below). Again, together with −v, some more text will be returned, including the total capacity of the density settings in kilobytes.

Debug Control
If the fdc(4) driver was configured with the FDC_DEBUG option, by default, device debugging information is still disabled since it could produce huge amounts of kernel messages. It needs to be turned on using fdcontrol together with ‘‘−d 1’’, usually immediately before starting an operation on the respective device the debug information is wanted for, and later turned off again using ‘‘−d 0’’. Note that debugging levels are a driver’s global option that will affect any drives and controllers using the fdc(4) driver, regardless which device was specified on the fdcontrol command line.

Density Control
The fdc(4) control utilities support two different options how to specify device density settings. The first form uses −f fmt to specify the format of the medium in kilobytes. Depending on the underlying drive type, the value is compared against a table of known commonly used device density settings for that drive, and if a match is found, those settings will be used. Currently, the following values for the respective drive types are acceptable:

2.88M and 1.44M drives:

HTML-IMAGElB lB lB lB lB lB lB r l l l l l l. KB

sectrac

secsize

ncyls

speed

heads

flags 1721

21

2 (512)

82

500

2

MFM 1476

18

2 (512)

82

500

2

MFM 1440

18

2 (512)

80

500

2

MFM 1200

15

2 (512)

80

500

2

MFM 820

10

2 (512)

82

250

2

MFM 800

10

2 (512)

80

250

2

MFM 720

9

2 (512)

80

250

2

MFM HTML-IMAGE-END.Ed

1.2M drives:

HTML-IMAGElB lB lB lB lB lB lB r l l l l l l. KB

sectrac

secsize

ncyls

speed

heads

flags 1200

15

2 (512)

80

500

2

MFM 1232

8

3 (1024)

77

500

2

MFM 1476

18

2 (512)

82

500

2

MFM 1440

18

2 (512)

80

500

2

MFM 1200

15

2 (512)

80

500

2

MFM 820

10

2 (512)

82

300

2

MFM 800

10

2 (512)

80

300

2

MFM 720

9

2 (512)

80

300

2

MFM 360

9

2 (512)

40

300

2

MFM,2STEP 640

8

2 (512)

80

300

2

MFM HTML-IMAGE-END.Ed

720K drives:

HTML-IMAGElB lB lB lB lB lB lB r l l l l l l. KB

sectrac

secsize

ncyls

speed

heads

flags 720

9

2 (512)

80

250

2

MFM HTML-IMAGE-END.Ed

360K drives:

HTML-IMAGElB lB lB lB lB lB lB r l l l l l l. KB

sectrac

secsize

ncyls

speed

heads

flags 360

9

2 (512)

40

250

2

MFM HTML-IMAGE-END.Ed

The second form to specify a device density uses −s fmtstr to explicitly specify each parameter in detail. The argument fmtstr is a comma-separated list of values of the form:

sectrac,secsize,datalen,gap,ncyls,speed,heads,f_gap,f_inter,offs2,flags

The meaning of the parameters is:

sectrac

The number of sectors per track.

secsize

The sector size code, 0 = 128 bytes (or less), 1 = 256 bytes, 2 = 512 bytes, 3 = 1024 bytes.

datalen

The actual sector size if the size code is 0, or the (ignored) value 0xFF for larger size codes.

gap

The length of the gap 3 parameter for read/write operations.

ncyls

The number of cylinders.

speed

The transfer speed in kilobytes per second. Can be 250, 300, 500, or 1000, but each drive type only supports a subset of these values.

heads

The number of heads.

f_gap

The length of the gap 3 when formatting media.

f_inter

The sector interleave to be applied when formatting. 0 means no interleave, 1 means 1:1 etc.

offs2

The offset of the sector numbers on side 2 (i.e., head number 1). Normally, sector numbering on both sides starts with 1.

flags

A list from one of the following flag values:

+mfm

Use MFM encoding.

-mfm

Use FM (single-density) encoding.

+2step

Use 2 steps per each cylinder (for accessing 40-cylinder media in 80-cylinder drives).

-2step

Do not use 2 steps per cylinder, i.e., access each physical cylinder of the drive.

+perpend

Use perpendicular recording (for 2.88 MB media, currently not supported).

-perpend

Use longitudinal recording.

For any missing parameter, the current value will be used, so only actual changes need to be specified. Thus to turn off a flag bit (like +mfm which is the default for all drive types), the form with a leading minus sign must explicitly be used.

EXAMPLES

A simple inquiry about the drive type:

$ fdcontrol /dev/fd0
1.44M

Same as above, but with verbose output. Note that the result is about the drive type, as opposed to a device density, so it is independent from the actual subdevice being used for device.

$ fdcontrol -v /dev/fd0
/dev/fd0: 1.44M drive (3.5" high-density)

Inquiry about the density settings:

$ fdcontrol -F /dev/fd0
18,512,0xff,0x1b,80,500,2,0x6c,1,0,+mfm

The verbose flag makes this human readable:

/dev/fd0: 1440 KB media type
Format: 18,512,0xff,0x1b,80,500,2,0x6c,1,0,+mfm
Sector size: 512
Sectors/track: 18
Heads/cylinder: 2
Cylinders/disk: 80
Transfer rate: 500 kbps
Sector gap: 27
Format gap: 108
Interleave: 1
Side offset: 0
Flags <MFM>

As indicated, trailing commas in the parameter list may be omitted.

In order to access archaic 160 KB single-density (FM encoded) 5.25 media in a modern 1.2M drive, something like the following definition would be needed. (Note that not all controller hardware is actually capable of handling FM encoding at all.)

# fdcontrol -s 16,128,0x80,0x2,40,300,,0x10,,,-mfm,+2step /dev/fd1.1

It is still possible to hook up 8" drives to most modern floppy controllers, given the right cable magic. (On PC hardware, tell the BIOS that it is a 5.25" drive.) The classical 128/26/2/77 format can be read with this entry

fdcontrol -s 26,128,0x80,0x2,77,500,2,0x10,,,-mfm /dev/fd0

SEE ALSO

fdc(4)

HISTORY

The fdcontrol utility appeared in FreeBSD 2.0, and was vastly overhauled in FreeBSD 5.0.

AUTHORS

The program and this man page was contributed by Jörg Wunsch, Dresden.

MidnightBSD 0.3 December 25, 2001 MidnightBSD 0.3