GROFF_CHAR

NAME
DESCRIPTION
REFERENCE
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

NAME

groff_char − groff glyph names

DESCRIPTION

This manual page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default input mapping, latin-1. The glyphs in this document will look different depending on which output device was chosen (with option −T for the man(1) program or the roff formatter). Glyphs not available for the device that is being used to print or view this manual page will be marked with ‘(N/A)’; the device currently used is ‘html’.

In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for direct input and named entities for further glyphs. On ASCII platforms, input character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal) represent the usual 7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted as the corresponding characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1) code set by default. This mapping is contained in the file latin1.tmac and can be changed by loading a different input encoding. Note that some of the input characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for special input purposes. On EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047 is supported (which contains the same characters as Latin-1; the input encoding file is called cp1047.tmac). Again, some input characters are reserved for internal and special purposes. It is rather straightforward (for the experienced user) to set up other 8-bit encodings like Latin-2; since groff will use Unicode in the next major version, no additional encodings are provided.

All roff systems provide the concept of named glyphs. In traditional roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also provides support for longer names. It is strongly suggested that only named glyphs are used for all character representations outside of the printable 7-bit ASCII range.

Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1) also produce single characters; these exist for historical reasons or are printable versions of syntactical characters. They include ‘\\’, ‘’, ‘\‘’, ‘\-’, ‘\.’, and ‘\e’; see groff(7).

In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can be tested positively with the ‘.if c’ conditional.

REFERENCE

In this section, the glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form. The meaning of the columns is as follows.

Output

shows how the glyph is printed for the current device; although this can have quite a different shape on other devices, it always represents the same glyph.

Input name

specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

Input code

applies to glyphs which can be input with a single character, and gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code of that input character. Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.

PostScript name

gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.

Unicode decomposed

is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.

7-bit Character Codes 32-126
These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned. They are identical to the printable characters of the character standards ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) and Unicode (range C0 Controls and Basic Latin). The glyph names used in composite glyph names are ‘u0020’ up to ‘u007E’.

Note that input characters in the range 0−31 and character 127 are not printable characters. Most of them are invalid input characters for groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning. For EBCDIC, the printable characters are in the range 66−255.

48−57

Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

65−90

Upper case letters A−Z (print as themselves).

97−122

Lower case letters a−z (print as themselves).

Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges print as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:

`

the ISO Latin-1 ‘Grave Accent’ (code 96) prints as ‘, a left single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained with ‘\‘’.

'

the ISO Latin-1 ‘Apostrophe’ (code 39) prints as ’, a right single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained with ‘\(aq’.

-

the ISO Latin-1 ‘Hyphen, Minus Sign’ (code 45) prints as a hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with ‘\-’.

~

the ISO Latin-1 ‘Tilde’ (code 126) is reduced in size to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with ‘\(ti’.

^

the ISO Latin-1 ‘Circumflex Accent’ (code 94) is reduced in size to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with ‘\(ha’.

Output Input Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name code name decomposed

! ! 33 exclam u0021
" " 34 quotedbl u0022
# # 35 numbersign u0023
$ $ 36 dollar u0024
% % 37 percent u0025
& & 38 ampersand u0026
' 39 quoteright u0027
( ( 40 parenleft u0028
) ) 41 parenright u0029
* * 42 asterisk u002A
+ + 43 plus u002B
, , 44 comma u002C
- - 45 hyphen u2010
. . 46 period u002E
/ / 47 slash u002F
: : 58 colon u003A
; ; 59 semicolon u003B
< < 60 less u003C
= = 61 equal u003D
> > 62 greater u003E
? ? 63 question u003F
@ @ 64 at u0040
[ [ 91 bracketleft u005B
\ \ 92 backslash u005C
] ] 93 bracketright u005D
^ ^ 94 circumflex u005E

circumflex accent

_ _ 95 underscore u005F
` 96 quoteleft u0060
{ { 123 braceleft u007B
| | 124 bar u007C
} } 125 braceright u007D
~ ~ 126 tilde u007E

tilde accent

8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
They are interpreted as printable characters according to the Latin-1 (iso-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement.

Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not printable characters.

160

the ISO Latin-1 no-break space is mapped to ‘\~’, the stretchable space character.

173

the soft hyphen control character. groff never uses this character for output (thus it is omitted in the table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto ‘\%’.

The remaining ranges (161−172, 174−255) are printable characters that print as themselves. Although they can be specified directly with the keyboard on systems with a Latin-1 code page, it is better to use their glyph names; see next section.

Output Input Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name code name decomposed

¡ ¡ 161 exclamdown u00A1

inverted exclamation mark

¢ ¢ 162 cent u00A2
£ £ 163 sterling u00A3
¤ ¤ 164 currency u00A4
¥ ¥ 165 yen u00A5
¦ ¦ 166 brokenbar u00A6
§ § 167 section u00A7
¨ ¨ 168 dieresis u00A8
© © 169 copyright u00A9
ª ª 170 ordfeminine u00AA
« « 171 guillemotleft u00AB
¬ ¬ 172 logicalnot u00AC
® ® 174 registered u00AE
¯ ¯ 175 macron u00AF
° ° 176 degree u00B0
± ± 177 plusminus u00B1
² ² 178 twosuperior u00B2
³ ³ 179 threesuperior u00B3
´ ´ 180 acute u00B4

acute accent

µ µ 181 mu u00B5

micro sign

182 paragraph u00B6
· · 183 periodcentered u00B7
¸ ¸ 184 cedilla u00B8
¹ ¹ 185 onesuperior u00B9
º º 186 ordmasculine u00BA
» » 187 guillemotright u00BB
¼ ¼ 188 onequarter u00BC
½ ½ 189 onehalf u00BD
¾ ¾ 190 threequarters u00BE
¿ ¿ 191 questiondown u00BF
À À 192 Agrave u0041_0300
Á Á 193 Aacute u0041_0301
  194 Acircumflex u0041_0302
à à 195 Atilde u0041_0303
Ä Ä 196 Adieresis u0041_0308
Å Å 197 Aring u0041_030A
Æ Æ 198 AE u00C6
Ç Ç 199 Ccedilla u0043_0327
È È 200 Egrave u0045_0300
É É 201 Eacute u0045_0301
Ê Ê 202 Ecircumflex u0045_0302
Ë Ë 203 Edieresis u0045_0308
Ì Ì 204 Igrave u0049_0300
Í Í 205 Iacute u0049_0301
Î Î 206 Icircumflex u0049_0302
Ï Ï 207 Idieresis u0049_0308
Ð Ð 208 Eth u00D0
Ñ Ñ 209 Ntilde u004E_0303
Ò Ò 210 Ograve u004F_0300
Ó Ó 211 Oacute u004F_0301
Ô Ô 212 Ocircumflex u004F_0302
Õ Õ 213 Otilde u004F_0303
Ö Ö 214 Odieresis u004F_0308
× × 215 multiply u00D7
Ø Ø 216 Oslash u00D8
Ù Ù 217 Ugrave u0055_0300
Ú Ú 218 Uacute u0055_0301
Û Û 219 Ucircumflex u0055_0302
Ü Ü 220 Udieresis u0055_0308
Ý Ý 221 Yacute u0059_0301
Þ Þ 222 Thorn u00DE
ß ß 223 germandbls u00DF
à à 224 agrave u0061_0300
á á 225 aacute u0061_0301
â â 226 acircumflex u0061_0302
ã ã 227 atilde u0061_0303
ä ä 228 adieresis u0061_0308
å å 229 aring u0061_030A
æ æ 230 ae u00E6
ç ç 231 ccedilla u0063_0327
è è 232 egrave u0065_0300
é é 233 eacute u0065_0301
ê ê 234 ecircumflex u0065_0302
ë ë 235 edieresis u0065_0308
ì ì 236 igrave u0069_0300
í í 237 iacute u0069_0301
î î 238 icircumflex u0069_0302
ï ï 239 idieresis u0069_0308
ð ð 240 eth u00F0
ñ ñ 241 ntilde u006E_0303
ò ò 242 ograve u006F_0300
ó ó 243 oacute u006F_0301
ô ô 244 ocircumflex u006F_0302
õ õ 245 otilde u006F_0303
ö ö 246 odieresis u006F_0308
÷ ÷ 247 divide u00F7
ø ø 248 oslash u00F8
ù ù 249 ugrave u0075_0300
ú ú 250 uacute u0075_0301
û û 251 ucircumflex u0075_0302
ü ü 252 udieresis u0075_0308
ý ý 253 yacute u0079_0301
þ þ 254 thorn u00FE
ÿ ÿ 255 ydieresis u0079_0308

Named Glyphs
Glyph names can be embedded into the document text by using escape sequences. groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look. Glyph names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII or Latin-1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters. Here some examples:

\c

A glyph having the name c, which consists of a single character (length 1).

\(ch

A glyph having the 2-character name ch.

\[char_name]

A glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...).

\[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]

A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

In groff, each 8-bit input character can also referred to by the construct ‘\[charn]’ where n is the decimal code of the character, a number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros (those entities are not glyph names). They are normally mapped onto glyphs using the .trin request. Another special convention is the handling of glyphs with names directly derived from a Unicode code point; this is discussed below. Moreover, new glyph names can be created by the .char request; see groff(7).

In the following, a plus sign in the ‘Notes’ column indicates that this particular glyph name appears in the PS version of the original troff documentation, CSTR 54.

Output Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name name decomposed

Ð \[-D] Eth u00D0

uppercase eth

ð \[Sd] eth u00F0

lowercase eth

Þ \[TP] Thorn u00DE

uppercase thorn

þ \[Tp] thorn u00FE

lowercase thorn

ß \[ss] germandbls u00DF

German sharp s

Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs
ff \[ff] ff u0066_0066

ff ligature +

fi \[fi] fi u0066_0069

fi ligature +

fl \[fl] fl u0066_006C

fl ligature +

ffi \[Fi] ffi u0066_0066_0069

ffi ligature +

ffl \[Fl] ffl u0066_0066_006C

ffl ligature +

Ł \[/L] Lslash u0141

(Polish)

ł \[/l] lslash u0142

(Polish)

Ø \[/O] Oslash u00D8

(Scandinavic)

ø \[/o] oslash u00F8

(Scandinavic)

Æ \[AE] AE u00C6
æ \[ae] ae u00E6
Π\[OE] OE u0152
œ \[oe] oe u0153
IJ \[IJ] IJ u0132

(Dutch)

ij \[ij] ij u0133

(Dutch)

ı \[.i] dotlessi u0131

(Turkish)

(N/A) \[.j] dotlessj ---

j without a dot

Accented Characters
Á \['A] Aacute u0041_0301
Ć \['C] Cacute u0043_0301
É \['E] Eacute u0045_0301
Í \['I] Iacute u0049_0301
Ó \['O] Oacute u004F_0301
Ú \['U] Uacute u0055_0301
Ý \['Y] Yacute u0059_0301
á \['a] aacute u0061_0301
ć \['c] cacute u0063_0301
é \['e] eacute u0065_0301
í \['i] iacute u0069_0301
ó \['o] oacute u006F_0301
ú \['u] uacute u0075_0301
ý \['y] yacute u0079_0301
Ä \[:A] Adieresis u0041_0308

A with umlaut

Ë \[:E] Edieresis u0045_0308
Ï \[:I] Idieresis u0049_0308
Ö \[:O] Odieresis u004F_0308
Ü \[:U] Udieresis u0055_0308
Ÿ \[:Y] Ydieresis u0059_0308
ä \[:a] adieresis u0061_0308
ë \[:e] edieresis u0065_0308
ï \[:i] idieresis u0069_0308
ö \[:o] odieresis u006F_0308
ü \[:u] udieresis u0075_0308
ÿ \[:y] ydieresis u0079_0308
 \[^A] Acircumflex u0041_0302
Ê \[^E] Ecircumflex u0045_0302
Î \[^I] Icircumflex u0049_0302
Ô \[^O] Ocircumflex u004F_0302
Û \[^U] Ucircumflex u0055_0302
â \[^a] acircumflex u0061_0302
ê \[^e] ecircumflex u0065_0302
î \[^i] icircumflex u0069_0302
ô \[^o] ocircumflex u006F_0302
û \[^u] ucircumflex u0075_0302
À \[`A] Agrave u0041_0300
È \[`E] Egrave u0045_0300
Ì \[`I] Igrave u0049_0300
Ò \[`O] Ograve u004F_0300
Ù \[`U] Ugrave u0055_0300
à \[`a] agrave u0061_0300
è \[`e] egrave u0065_0300
ì \[`i] igrave u0069_0300
ò \[`o] ograve u006F_0300
ù \[`u] ugrave u0075_0300
à \[~A] Atilde u0041_0303
Ñ \[~N] Ntilde u004E_0303
Õ \[~O] Otilde u004F_0303
ã \[~a] atilde u0061_0303
ñ \[~n] ntilde u006E_0303
õ \[~o] otilde u006F_0303
Š \[vS] Scaron u0053_030C
š \[vs] scaron u0073_030C
Ž \[vZ] Zcaron u005A_030C
ž \[vz] zcaron u007A_030C
Ç \[,C] Ccedilla u0043_0327
ç \[,c] ccedilla u0063_0327
Å \[oA] Aring u0041_030A
å \[oa] aring u0061_030A

Accents

The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original (spacing) ones.

Output Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name name decomposed

˝ \[a"] hungarumlaut u030B (u02DD)

(Hungarian)

¯ \[a-] macron u0304 (u00AF)
˙ \[a.] dotaccent u0307 (u02D9)
^ \[a^] circumflex u0302 (u005E)
´ \[aa] acute u0301 (u00B4)

+

` \[ga] grave u0300 (u0060)

+

˘ \[ab] breve u0306 (u02D8)
¸ \[ac] cedilla u0327 (u00B8)
¨ \[ad] dieresis u0308 (u00A8)

umlaut

ˇ \[ah] caron u030C (u02C7)

hácek

˚ \[ao] ring u030A (u02DA)

circle

~ \[a~] tilde u0303 (u007E)
˛ \[ho] ogonek u0328 (u02DB)

hook

^ \[ha] asciicircum u005E

(spacing)

~ \[ti] asciitilde u007E

(spacing)

Quotes
\[Bq] quotedblbase u201E

low double comma quote

\[bq] quotesinglbase u201A

low single comma quote

\[lq] quotedblleft u201C
\[rq] quotedblright u201D
\[oq] quoteleft u2018

single open quote

\[cq] quoteright u2019

single closing quote

' \[aq] quotesingle u0027

apostrophe quote (ASCII 39)

" \[dq] quotedbl u0022

double quote (ASCII 34)

« \[Fo] guillemotleft u00AB
» \[Fc] guillemotright u00BB
\[fo] guilsinglleft u2039
\[fc] guilsinglright u203A

Punctuation
¡ \[r!] exclamdown u00A1
¿ \[r?] questiondown u00BF
\[em] emdash u2014

+

\[en] endash u2013
- \[hy] hyphen u2010

+

Brackets

The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs. In classical troff only one glyph was available to vertically extend brackets, braces, and parentheses: ‘bv’. We map it rather arbitrarily to u23AA.

Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can be piled up with ‘\b’ due to the restrictions of the escape’s piling algorithm. A general solution to build brackets out of pieces is the following macro:

.\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
.\" above the baseline.
.\" The first argument is placed at the top.
.\" The pile is returned in string ‘pile’
.eo
.de pile-make
.  nr pile-wd 0
.  nr pile-ht 0
.  ds pile-args
.
.  nr pile-# \n[.$]
.  while \n[pile-#] \{\
.    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w’\$[\n[pile-#]]’)
.    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
.    as pile-args \v’\n[rsb]u’\"
.    as pile-args \Z’\$[\n[pile-#]]’\"
.    as pile-args \v’-\n[rst]u’\"
.    nr pile-# -1
.  \}
.
.  ds pile \v’(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))’\"
.  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
.  as pile \v’((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)’\"
.  as pile \h’\n[pile-wd]u’\"
..
.ec

Another complication is the fact that some glyphs which represent bracket pieces in original troff can be used for other mathematical symbols also, for example ‘lf’ and ‘rf’ which provide the ‘floor’ operator. Other devices (most notably for DVI output) don’t unify such glyphs. For this reason, the four glyphs ‘lf’, ‘rf’, ‘lc’, and ‘rc’ are not unified with similarly looking bracket pieces. In groff, only glyphs with long names are guaranteed to pile up correctly for all devices (provided those glyphs exist).

Output Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name name decomposed

[ \[lB] bracketleft u005B
] \[rB] bracketright u005D
{ \[lC] braceleft u007B
} \[rC] braceright u007D
\[la] angleleft u27E8

left angle bracket

\[ra] angleright u27E9

right angle bracket

\[bv] braceex u23AA

vertical extension *** +

\[braceex] braceex u23AA
\[bracketlefttp] bracketlefttp u23A1
\[bracketleftbt] bracketleftbt u23A3
\[bracketleftex] bracketleftex u23A2
\[bracketrighttp] bracketrighttp u23A4
\[bracketrightbt] bracketrightbt u23A6
\[bracketrightex] bracketrightex u23A5
\[lt] bracelefttp u23A7

+

\[bracelefttp] bracelefttp u23A7
\[lk] braceleftmid u23A8

+

\[braceleftmid] braceleftmid u23A8
\[lb] braceleftbt u23A9

+

\[braceleftbt] braceleftbt u23A9
\[braceleftex] braceleftex u23AA
\[rt] bracerighttp u23AB

+

\[bracerighttp] bracerighttp u23AB
\[rk] bracerightmid u23AC

+

\[bracerightmid] bracerightmid u23AC
\[rb] bracerightbt u23AD

+

\[bracerightbt] bracerightbt u23AD
\[bracerightex] bracerightex u23AA
\[parenlefttp] parenlefttp u239B
\[parenleftbt] parenleftbt u239D
\[parenleftex] parenleftex u239C
\[parenrighttp] parenrighttp u239E
\[parenrightbt] parenrightbt u23A0
\[parenrightex] parenrightex u239F

Arrows
\[<-] arrowleft u2190

+

\[->] arrowright u2192

+

\[<>] arrowboth u2194

(horizontal)

\[da] arrowdown u2193

+

\[ua] arrowup u2191

+

\[va] arrowupdn u2195
\[lA] arrowdblleft u21D0
\[rA] arrowdblright u21D2
\[hA] arrowdblboth u21D4

(horizontal)

\[dA] arrowdbldown u21D3
\[uA] arrowdblup u21D1
\[vA] uni21D5 u21D5

vertical double-headed double arrow

\[an] arrowhorizex u23AF

horizontal arrow extension

Lines

The font-invariant glyphs ‘br’, ‘ul’, and ‘rn’ form corners; they can be used to build boxes. Note that both the PostScript and the Unicode-derived names of these three glyphs are just rough approximations.

‘rn’ also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of the square root sign.

‘ru’ is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

Output Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name name decomposed

| \[ba] bar u007C
\[br] SF110000 u2502

box rule +

_ \[ul] underscore u005F

+

\[rn] overline u203E

use ‘\[radicalex]’ for continuation of square root +

_ \[ru] --- ---

baseline rule +

¦ \[bb] brokenbar u00A6
/ \[sl] slash u002F

+

\ \[rs] backslash u005C

reverse solidus

Text markers
\[ci] circle u25CB

+

\[bu] bullet u2022

+

\[dd] daggerdbl u2021

double dagger sign +

\[dg] dagger u2020

+

\[lz] lozenge u25CA
\[sq] uni25A1 u25A1

white square +

\[ps] paragraph u00B6
§ \[sc] section u00A7

+

\[lh] uni261C u261C

hand pointing left +

\[rh] a14 u261E

hand pointing right +

@ \[at] at u0040
# \[sh] numbersign u0023
\[CR] carriagereturn u21B5
\[OK] a19 u2713

check mark, tick

Legal Symbols
© \[co] copyright u00A9

+

® \[rg] registered u00AE

+

\[tm] trademark u2122
(N/A) \[bs] --- ---

AT&T Bell Labs logo (not used in groff) +

Currency symbols
$ \[Do] dollar u0024
¢ \[ct] cent u00A2

+

\[eu] --- u20AC

official Euro symbol

\[Eu] Euro u20AC

font-specific Euro glyph variant

¥ \[Ye] yen u00A5
£ \[Po] sterling u00A3

British currency sign

¤ \[Cs] currency u00A4

Scandinavian currency sign

ƒ \[Fn] florin u0192

Dutch currency sign

Units
° \[de] degree u00B0

+

\[%0] perthousand u2030

per thousand, per mille sign

\[fm] minute u2032

footmark, prime +

\[sd] second u2033
µ \[mc] mu u00B5

micro sign

ª \[Of] ordfeminine u00AA
º \[Om] ordmasculine u00BA

Logical Symbols
\[AN] logicaland u2227
\[OR] logicalor u2228
¬ \[no] logicalnot u00AC

+

¬ \[tno] logicalnot u00AC

text variant of ‘no’

\[te] existential u2203

there exists, existential quantifier

\[fa] universal u2200

for all, universal quantifier

\[st] suchthat u220B
\[3d] therefore u2234
\[tf] therefore u2234
| \[or] bar u007C

bitwise OR operator (as used in C) +

Mathematical Symbols
½ \[12] onehalf u00BD

+

¼ \[14] onequarter u00BC

+

¾ \[34] threequarters u00BE

+

\[18] oneeighth u215B
\[38] threeeighths u215C
\[58] fiveeighths u215D
\[78] seveneighths u215E
¹ \[S1] onesuperior u00B9
² \[S2] twosuperior u00B2
³ \[S3] threesuperior u00B3
+ \[pl] plus u002B

plus sign in special font +

\[mi] minus u2212

minus sign in special font +

\[-+] uni2213 u2213
± \[+-] plusminus u00B1

+

± \[t+-] plusminus u00B1

text variant of ‘+−’

· \[pc] periodcentered u00B7
\[md] dotmath u22C5

multiplication dot

× \[mu] multiply u00D7

+

× \[tmu] multiply u00D7

text variant of ‘mu’

\[c*] circlemultiply u2297

multiply sign in a circle

\[c+] circleplus u2295

plus sign in a circle

÷ \[di] divide u00F7

division sign +

÷ \[tdi] divide u00F7

text variant of ‘di’

\[f/] fraction u2044

bar for fractions

\[**] asteriskmath u2217

+

\[<=] lessequal u2264

+

\[>=] greaterequal u2265

+

\[<<] uni226A u226A

much less

\[>>] uni226B u226B

much greater

= \[eq] equal u003D

equals sign in special font +

\[!=] notequal u003D_0338

+

\[==] equivalence u2261

+

\[ne] uni2262 u2261_0338
\[=~] congruent u2245

approx. equal

\[|=] uni2243 u2243

asymptot. equal to +

\[ap] similar u223C

+

\[~~] approxequal u2248

almost equal to

\[~=] approxequal u2248
\[pt] proportional u221D

+

\[es] emptyset u2205

+

\[mo] element u2208

+

\[nm] notelement u2208_0338
\[sb] propersubset u2282

+

\[nb] notsubset u2282_0338
\[sp] propersuperset u2283

+

\[nc] uni2285 u2283_0338

not superset

\[ib] reflexsubset u2286

+

\[ip] reflexsuperset u2287

+

\[ca] intersection u2229

intersection, cap +

\[cu] union u222A

union, cup +

\[/_] angle u2220
\[pp] perpendicular u22A5
\[is] integral u222B

+

\[integral] integral u222B

***

\[sum] summation u2211

***

\[product] product u220F

***

\[coproduct] uni2210 u2210

***

\[gr] gradient u2207

+

\[sr] radical u221A

square root +

\[sqrt] radical u221A

***  

\[radicalex] radicalex ---

continuation of square root  

\[sqrtex] radicalex ---

***

\[lc] uni2308 u2308

left ceiling +

\[rc] uni2309 u2309

right ceiling +

\[lf] uni230A u230A

left floor +

\[rf] uni230B u230B

right floor +

\[if] infinity u221E

+

\[Ah] aleph u2135
\[Im] Ifraktur u2111

Gothic I, imaginary

\[Re] Rfraktur u211C

Gothic R, real

\[wp] weierstrass u2118

Weierstrass p

\[pd] partialdiff u2202

partial differentiation sign +

\[-h] uni210F u210F

Planck constant over two pi

\[hbar] uni210F u210F

Greek characters

These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real Greek; normally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase ones are slanted. There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi to Unicode. Prior to Unicode version 3.0, the difference between U+03C6, GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was not clearly described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be used as a reference. Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs have been exchanged and described verbally also: In mathematical context, U+03D5 is the stroked variant and U+03C5 the curly glyph. Unfortunately, most font vendors didn’t update their fonts to this (incompatible) change in Unicode. At the time of this writing (February 2003), it is not clear yet whether the Adobe Glyph Names ‘phi’ and ‘phi1’ also change its meaning if used for mathematics, thus compatibility problems are likely to happen – being conservative, groff currently assumes that ‘phi’ in a PostScript symbol font is the stroked version.

In groff, symbol ‘\[*f]’ always denotes the stroked version of phi, and ‘\[+f]’ the curly variant.
Α \[*A] Alpha u0391

+

Β \[*B] Beta u0392

+

Γ \[*G] Gamma u0393

+

Δ \[*D] Delta u0394

+

Ε \[*E] Epsilon u0395

+

Ζ \[*Z] Zeta u0396

+

Η \[*Y] Eta u0397

+

Θ \[*H] Theta u0398

+

Ι \[*I] Iota u0399

+

Κ \[*K] Kappa u039A

+

Λ \[*L] Lambda u039B

+

Μ \[*M] Mu u039C

+

Ν \[*N] Nu u039D

+

Ξ \[*C] Xi u039E

+

Ο \[*O] Omicron u039F

+

Π \[*P] Pi u03A0

+

Ρ \[*R] Rho u03A1

+

Σ \[*S] Sigma u03A3

+

Τ \[*T] Tau u03A4

+

Υ \[*U] Upsilon u03A5

+

Φ \[*F] Phi u03A6

+

Χ \[*X] Chi u03A7

+

Ψ \[*Q] Psi u03A8

+

Ω \[*W] Omega u03A9

+

α \[*a] alpha u03B1

+

β \[*b] beta u03B2

+

γ \[*g] gamma u03B3

+

δ \[*d] delta u03B4

+

ε \[*e] epsilon u03B5

+

ζ \[*z] zeta u03B6

+

η \[*y] eta u03B7

+

θ \[*h] theta u03B8

+

ι \[*i] iota u03B9

+

κ \[*k] kappa u03BA

+

λ \[*l] lambda u03BB

+

μ \[*m] mu u03BC

+

ν \[*n] nu u03BD

+

ξ \[*c] xi u03BE

+

ο \[*o] omicron u03BF

+

π \[*p] pi u03C0

+

ρ \[*r] rho u03C1

+

ς \[ts] sigma1 u03C2

terminal sigma +

σ \[*s] sigma u03C3

+

τ \[*t] tau u03C4

+

υ \[*u] upsilon u03C5

+

ϕ \[*f] phi u03D5

(stroked glyph)+

χ \[*x] chi u03C7

+

ψ \[*q] psi u03C8

+

ω \[*w] omega u03C9

+

ϑ \[+h] theta1 u03D1

variant theta

φ \[+f] phi1 u03C6

variant phi (curly shape)

ϖ \[+p] omega1 u03D6

variant pi, looking like omega

ϵ \[+e] uni03F5 u03F5

variant epsilon

Card symbols
\[CL] club u2663

black club suit

\[SP] spade u2660

black spade suit

\[HE] heart u2665

black heart suit

(N/A) \[u2662] uni2662 u2662

white heart suit

\[DI] diamond u2666

black diamond suit

(N/A) \[u2661] uni2661 u2661

white diamond suit

AUTHOR

Copyright © 1989-2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License) version 1.1 or later. You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU copyleft site.

This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution. It was written by James Clark with additions by Werner Lemberg and Bernd Warken.

SEE ALSO

groff(1)

the GNU roff formatter.

groff(7)

a short reference of the groff formatting language.

An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J. Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

The Unicode Standard