SYSINSTALL(8) MidnightBSD System Manager’s Manual SYSINSTALL(8)

NAME

sysinstall — system installation and configuration tool

SYNOPSIS

sysinstall [var=value] [function] [...]

DESCRIPTION

The sysinstall utility is used for installing and configuring MidnightBSD systems. It is the first utility invoked by the MidnightBSD installation boot floppy and is also available as /usr/sbin/sysinstall on newly installed MidnightBSD systems for use in later configuring the system.

The sysinstall utility is generally invoked without arguments for the default behavior, where the main installation/configuration menu is presented.

On those occasions where it is deemed necessary to invoke a subsystem of sysinstall directly, however, it is also possible to do so by naming the appropriate function entry points on the command line. Since this action is essentially identical to running an installation script, each command-line argument corresponding to a line of script, the reader is encouraged to read the section on scripting for more information on this feature.

NOTES

The sysinstall utility is essentially nothing more than a monolithic C program with the ability to write MBRs and disk labels (through the services of the libdisk(3) library) and install distributions or packages onto new and existing MidnightBSD systems. It also contains some extra intelligence for running as a replacement for init(8) when it is invoked by the MidnightBSD installation boot procedure. It assumes very little in the way of additional utility support and performs most file system operations by calling the relevant syscalls (such as mount(2)) directly.

The sysinstall utility currently uses the dialog(3) library to do user interaction with simple ANSI line graphics, color support for which is enabled by either running on a syscons VTY or some other color-capable terminal emulator (newer versions of xterm will support color when using the ‘‘xterm-color’’ termcap entry).

This product is currently at the end of its life cycle and will eventually be replaced.

RUNNING SCRIPTS

The sysinstall utility may be either driven interactively through its various internal menus or run in batch mode, driven by an external script. Such a script may be loaded and executed in one of 3 ways:

LOAD_CONFIG_FILE

If sysinstall is compiled with LOAD_CONFIG_FILE set in the environment (or in the Makefile) to some value, then that value will be used as the filename to automatically look for and load when sysinstall starts up and with no user interaction required. This option is aimed primarily at large sites who wish to create a single prototype install for multiple machines with largely identical configurations and/or installation options.

MAIN MENU

If sysinstall is run interactively, that is to say in the default manner, it will bring up a main menu which contains a "load config file" option. Selecting this option will prompt for the name of a script file which it then will attempt to load from a DOS or UFS formatted floppy.

COMMAND LINE

Each command line argument is treated as a script directive when sysinstall is run in multi-user mode. Execution ends either by explicit request (e.g. calling the shutdown directive), upon reaching the end of the argument list or on error.

For example:

/usr/sbin/sysinstall _ftpPath=ftp://ziggy/pub/ mediaSetFTP configPackages

Would initialize sysinstall for FTP installation media (using the server ‘ziggy’) and then bring up the package installation editor, exiting when finished.

SCRIPT SYNTAX

A script is a list of one or more directives, each directive taking the form of:

var=value

function

or #somecomment

Where var=value is the assignment of some internal sysinstall variable, e.g. "ftpPass=FuNkYChiKn", and function is the name of an internal sysinstall function, e.g. "mediaSetFTP", and #comment is a single-line comment for documentation purposes (ignored by sysinstall). Each directive must be by itself on a single line, functions taking their arguments by examining known variable names. This requires that you be sure to assign the relevant variables before calling a function which requires them.

The noError variable can be assigned before each directive: this will cause any error detected while processing the directive itself to be ignored. The value of noError will automatically reset to the default "unassigned" every time a directive is processed.

When and where a function depends on the settings of one or more variables will be noted in the following table:

Function Glossary:

configAnonFTP

Invoke the Anonymous FTP configuration menu.

Variables: None

configRouter

Select which routing daemon you wish to use, potentially loading any required 3rd-party routing daemons as necessary.

Variables:

router

can be set to the name of the desired routing daemon, e.g. ‘‘routed’’ or ‘‘gated’’, otherwise it is prompted for.

configNFSServer

Configure host as an NFS server.

Variables: None

configNTP

Configure host as a user of the Network Time Protocol.

Variables:

rdate_flags

The flags to rdate(8), that is to say the name of the server to sync from.

configPCNFSD

Configure host to support PC NFS.

Variables:

pcnfsd_pkg

The name of the PCNFSD package to load if necessary (defaults to hard coded version).

configPackages

Bring up the interactive package management menu.

Variables: None

configUsers

Add users and/or groups to the system.

Variables: None

diskPartitionEditor

Invokes the disk partition (MBR) editor.

Variables:

geometry

The disk geometry, as a cyls/heads/sectors formatted string. Default: no change to geometry.

partition

Set to disk partitioning type or size, its value being free in order to use only remaining free space for MidnightBSD, all to use the entire disk for MidnightBSD but maintain a proper partition table, existing to use an existing MidnightBSD partition (first found), exclusive to use the disk in ‘‘dangerously dedicated’’ mode or, finally, somenumber to allocate somenumber blocks of available free space to a new MidnightBSD partition. Default: Interactive mode.

bootManager

is set to one of boot to signify the installation of a boot manager, standard to signify installation of a "standard" non-boot MGR DOS MBR or none to indicate that no change to the boot manager is desired. Default: none.

diskInteractive

If set, bring up the interactive disk partition editor.

Note: Nothing is actually written to disk by this function, an explicit call to diskPartitionWrite being required for that to happen.

diskPartitionWrite

Causes any pending MBR changes (typically from the diskPartitionEditor function) to be written out.

Variables: None

diskLabelEditor

Invokes the disk label editor. This is a bit trickier from a script since you need to essentially label everything inside each MidnightBSD (type 0xA5) partition created by the diskPartitionEditor function, and that requires knowing a few rules about how things are laid out. When creating a script to automatically allocate disk space and partition it up, it is suggested that you first perform the installation interactively at least once and take careful notes as to what the slice names will be, then and only then hardwiring them into the script.

For example, let’s say you have a SCSI disk on which you have created a new MidnightBSD partition in slice 2 (your DOS partition residing in slice 1). The slice name would be da0s2 for the whole MidnightBSD partition (da0s1 being your DOS primary partition). Now let’s further assume that you have 500MB in this partition and you want to sub-partition that space into root, swap, var and usr file systems for MidnightBSD. Your invocation of the diskLabelEditor function might involve setting the following variables:

da0s2-1=ufs 40960 /

A 20MB root file system (all sizes are in 512 byte blocks).

da0s2-2=swap 131072 /

A 64MB swap partition.

da0s2-3=ufs 204800 /var

A 100MB /var file system.

da0s2-4=ufs 0 /usr 1

With the balance of free space (around 316MB) going to the /usr file system and with soft-updates enabled (the argument following the mount point, if non-zero, means to set the soft updates flag).

One can also use the diskLabelEditor for mounting or erasing existing partitions as well as creating new ones. Using the previous example again, let’s say that we also wanted to mount our DOS partition and make sure that an /etc/fstab entry is created for it in the new installation. Before calling the diskLabelEditor function, we simply add an additional line:

da0s1=/dos_c N

before the call. This tells the label editor that you want to mount the first slice on /dos_c and not to attempt to newfs it (not that sysinstall would attempt this for a DOS partition in any case, but it could just as easily be an existing UFS partition being named here and the 2nd field is non-optional).

You can also set the diskInteractive variable to request that the disk label editor use an interactive dialog to partition the disk instead of using variables to explicitly layout the disk as described above.

Note: No file system data is actually written to disk until an explicit call to diskLabelCommit is made.

diskLabelCommit

Writes out all pending disklabel information and creates and/or mounts any file systems which have requests pending from the diskLabelEditor function.

Variables: None

distReset

Resets all selected distributions to the empty set (no distributions selected).

Variables: None

distSetCustom

Allows the selection of a custom distribution set (e.g. not just one of the existing "canned" sets) with no user interaction.

Variables:

dists

List of distributions to load. Possible distribution values are:

base

The base binary distribution.

doc

Miscellaneous documentation

games

Games

manpages

Manual pages (unformatted)

catpages

Pre-formatted manual pages

proflibs

Profiled libraries for developers.

dict

Dictionary information (for tools like spell).

info

GNU info files and other extra docs.

lib32

(amd64 only) 32-bit runtime compatibility libraries.

ports

The ports collection.

ssecure

/usr/src/secure

sbase

/usr/src/[top level files]

scontrib

/usr/src/contrib

sgnu

/usr/src/gnu

setc

/usr/src/etc

sgames

/usr/src/games

sinclude

/usr/src/include

skrb5

/usr/src/kerberos5

slib

/usr/src/lib

slibexec

/usr/src/libexec

srelease

/usr/src/release

srescue

/usr/src/rescue

sbin

/usr/src/bin

ssbin

/usr/src/sbin

sshare

/usr/src/share

ssys

/usr/src/sys

subin

/usr/src/usr.bin

susbin

/usr/src/usr.sbin

ssmailcf

/usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf

Xbin

X.Org client applications.

Xlib

X.Org libraries.

Xman

X.Org manual pages.

Xdoc

X.Org protocol and library documentation.

Xprog

X.Org imake distribution.

Xsrv

X.Org X server.

Xnest

X.Org nested X server.

Xprt

X.Org print server.

Xvfb

X.Org virtual frame-buffer X server.

Xfmsc

X.Org miscellaneous font set.

Xf75

X.Org 75DPI font set.

Xf100

X.Org 100DPI font set.

Xfcyr

X.Org Cyrillic font set.

Xft1

X.Org Type 1 font set.

Xftt

X.Org TrueType font set.

Xfs

X.Org font server.

distSetDeveloper

Selects the standard Developer’s distribution set.

Variables: None

distSetXDeveloper

Selects the standard X Developer’s distribution set.

Variables: None

distSetKernDeveloper

Selects the standard kernel Developer’s distribution set.

Variables: None

distSetUser

Selects the standard user distribution set.

Variables: None

distSetXUser

Selects the standard X user’s distribution set.

Variables: None

distSetMinimum

Selects the very minimum distribution set.

Variables: None

distSetEverything

Selects the full whack - all available distributions.

Variables: None

distSetSrc

Interactively select source subcomponents.

Variables: None

distSetXOrg

Interactively select X.Org subcomponents.

Variables: None

distExtractAll

Install all currently selected distributions (requires that media device also be selected).

Variables: None

docBrowser

Install (if necessary) an HTML documentation browser and go to the HTML documentation submenu.

Variables:

browserPackage

The name of the browser package to try and install as necessary. Defaults to latest links package.

browserBinary

The name of the browser binary itself (if overriding the browserPackage variable). Defaults to links.

installCommit

Commit any and all pending changes to disk. This function is essentially shorthand for a number of more granular "commit" functions.

Variables: None

installExpress

Start an "express" installation, asking few questions of the user.

Variables: None

installStandard

Start a "standard" installation, the most user-friendly installation type available.

Variables: None

installUpgrade

Start an upgrade installation.

Variables: None

installFixitHoloShell

Start up the "emergency holographic shell" over on VTY4 if running as init. This will also happen automatically as part of the installation process unless noHoloShell is set.

Variables: None

installFixitCDROM

Go into "fixit" mode, assuming a live file system CDROM currently in the drive.

Variables: None

installFixitFloppy

Go into "fixit" mode, assuming an available fixit floppy disk (user will be prompted for it).

Variables: None

installFilesystems

Do just the file system initialization part of an install.

Variables: None

installVarDefaults

Initialize all variables to their defaults, overriding any previous settings.

Variables: None

loadConfig

Sort of like an #include statement, it allows you to load one configuration file from another.

Variables:

configFile

The fully qualified pathname of the file to load.

mediaOpen

If a media device is set, mount it.

Variables: None

mediaClose

If a media device is open, close it.

Variables: None

mediaSetCDROM

Select a MidnightBSD CDROM as the installation media.

Variables: None

mediaSetFloppy

Select a pre-made floppy installation set as the installation media.

Variables: None

mediaSetDOS

Select an existing DOS primary partition as the installation media. The first primary partition found is used (e.g. C:).

Variables: None

mediaSetTape

Select a tape device as the installation media.

Variables: None

mediaSetFTP

Select an FTP site as the installation media.

Variables:

hostname

The name of the host being installed (non-optional).

domainname

The domain name of the host being installed (optional).

defaultrouter

The default router for this host (non-optional).

netDev

Which host interface to use (ed0 or ep0, for example. Non-optional).

netInteractive

If set, bring up the interactive network setup form even if all relevant configuration variables are already set (optional).

ipaddr

The IP address for the selected host interface (non-optional).

netmask

The netmask for the selected host interface (non-optional).

_ftpPath

The fully qualified URL of the FTP site containing the MidnightBSD distribution you are interested in, e.g. ftp://ftp.MidnightBSD.org/pub/MidnightBSD/.

mediaSetFTPActive

Alias for mediaSetFTP using "active" FTP transfer mode.

Variables: Same as for mediaSetFTP.

mediaSetFTPPassive

Alias for mediaSetFTP using "passive" FTP transfer mode.

Variables: Same as for mediaSetFTP.

mediaSetHTTP

Alias for mediaSetFTP using an HTTP proxy.

Variables: See mediaSetFTP, plus

_httpPath

The proxy to use (host:port) (non-optional).

mediaSetUFS

Select an existing UFS partition (mounted with the label editor) as the installation media.

Variables:

ufs

full /path to directory containing the MidnightBSD distribution you are interested in.

mediaSetNFS

Variables:

hostname

The name of the host being installed (non-optional).

domainname

The domain name of the host being installed (optional).

defaultrouter

The default router for this host (non-optional).

netDev

Which host interface to use (ed0 or ep0, for example. Non-optional).

netInteractive

If set, bring up the interactive network setup form even if all relevant configuration variables are already set (optional).

ipaddr

The IP address for the selected host interface (non-optional).

netmask

The netmask for the selected host interface (non-optional).

nfs

full hostname:/path specification for directory containing the MidnightBSD distribution you are interested in.

mediaSetFTPUserPass

Variables:

ftpUser

The username to log in as on the ftp server site. Default: ftp

ftpPass

The password to use for this username on the ftp server site. Default: user@host

mediaSetCPIOVerbosity

Variables:

cpioVerbose

Can be used to set the verbosity of cpio extractions to low, medium or high.

mediaGetType

Interactively get the user to specify some type of media.

Variables: None

optionsEditor

Invoke the interactive options editor.

Variables: None

packageAdd

Try to fetch and add a package to the system (requires that a media type be set),

Variables:

package

The name of the package to add, e.g. bash-1.14.7 or ncftp-2.4.2.

addGroup

Invoke the interactive group editor.

Variables: None

addUser

Invoke the interactive user editor.

Variables: None

shutdown

Stop the script and terminate sysinstall.

Variables: None

system

Execute an arbitrary command with system(3)

Variables:

command

The name of the command to execute. When running from a boot floppy, very minimal expectations should be made as to what is available until/unless a relatively full system installation has just been done.

tcpMenuSelect

Configure a network device.

Variables: Same as for mediaSetFTP except that _ftpPath is not used.

DISTRIBUTION MEDIA

The following files can be used to affect the operation of sysinstall when used during initial system installation.

cdrom.inf

A text file of properties, listed one per line, that describe the contents of the media in use. The syntax for each line is simply ‘‘property = value’’. Currently, only the following properties are recognized.

CD_VERSION

This property should be set to the MidnightBSD version on the current media volume. For example, ‘‘CD_VERSION = 5.3’’.

CD_MACHINE_ARCH

This property should be set to the architecture of the contents on this volume. This property is normally only used with MidnightBSD products that contain CDs for different architectures, to provide better error messages if users try to install Sparc64 packages on an i386 machine. For example, ‘‘CD_MACHINE_ARCH = sparc64’’.

CD_VOLUME

In a multi-volume collection (such as the MidnightBSD 4-CD set), the ports/INDEX file on each disc should contain the full package index for the set. The last field of the INDEX file denotes which volume the package appears on, and the CD_VOLUME property here defines the volume ID of the current disc.

packages/INDEX

The package index file. Each package is listed on a separate line with additional meta-data such as the required dependencies. This index is generated by ‘‘make index’’ from the ports(7) collection. When multi-volume support is enabled, an additional field should be added to each line indicating which media volume contains the given package.

For information about building a full release of MidnightBSD, please see release(7).

FILES

This utility may edit the contents of /etc/rc.conf, /etc/hosts, and /etc/resolv.conf as necessary to reflect changes in the network configuration.

SEE ALSO

If you have a reasonably complete source tree online, take a look at /usr/src/usr.sbin/sysinstall/install.cfg for a sample installation script.

HISTORY

This version of sysinstall first appeared in FreeBSD 2.0.

AUTHORS

Jordan K. Hubbard 〈jkh@FreeBSD.org〉

BUGS

This utility is a prototype which lasted several years past its expiration date and is greatly in need of death.

MidnightBSD 0.3 June 14, 2005 MidnightBSD 0.3