UTF8(5) MidnightBSD File Formats Manual UTF8(5)


utf8 — UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646




The UTF-8 encoding represents UCS-4 characters as a sequence of octets, using between 1 and 6 for each character. It is backwards compatible with ASCII, so 0x00-0x7f refer to the ASCII character set. The multibyte encoding of non-ASCII characters consist entirely of bytes whose high order bit is set. The actual encoding is represented by the following table:

[0x00000000 - 0x0000007f] [00000000.0bbbbbbb] -> 0bbbbbbb
[0x00000080 - 0x000007ff] [00000bbb.bbbbbbbb] -> 110bbbbb, 10bbbbbb
[0x00000800 - 0x0000ffff] [bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb] ->

1110bbbb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb

[0x00010000 - 0x001fffff] [00000000.000bbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb] ->

11110bbb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb

[0x00200000 - 0x03ffffff] [000000bb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb] ->

111110bb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb

[0x04000000 - 0x7fffffff] [0bbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb] ->

1111110b, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb

If more than a single representation of a value exists (for example, 0x00; 0xC0 0x80; 0xE0 0x80 0x80) the shortest representation is always used. Longer ones are detected as an error as they pose a potential security risk, and destroy the 1:1 character:octet sequence mapping.



Rob Pike


Ken Thompson , "
Hello World ",
Proceedings of the Winter 1993 USENIX Technical Conference
USENIX Association ,
January 1993 .

F. Yergeau


UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646 ,
January 1998 ,
RFC 2279 .

The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0


The Unicode Consortium ,
2000 ,
as amended by the Unicode Standard Annex #27: Unicode 3.1 and by the Unicode Standard Annex #28: Unicode 3.2 .


The utf8 encoding is compatible with RFC 2279 and Unicode 3.2.

MidnightBSD 0.3 April 7, 2004 MidnightBSD 0.3